Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Caesar followed this victory with a series of punitive raids against tribes along the Atlantic seaboard that had assembled an anti-Roman confederacy, and he fought a combined land-sea campaign against the Veneti. He also was authorized to levy additional legions and auxiliary forces as needed. Although several brief cavalry engagements had been fought, the mass of the two armies had only stood and glared at one another. The siege of Alesia, which Caesar recounted in his Commentaries, is considered one of his greatest military achievements as well as being a classic example of successful siege warfare. Again, Caesar personally rode to the spot to rally his troops and his inspired legionaries were able to beat back the Gallic attack. They were moving to escape harassment by Germanic tribes and to seek plunder of their own, something that was missing in their mountainous homeland. “[The Belgae] never gave up even when there was no hope of victory,” Caesar wrote. After the battle, 180 stands of colors and nine eagle standards were brought to Caesar as trophies of his victory. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. was spent in a punitive campaign against the Eburones and their allies, who were said to have been all but exterminated by the Romans. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Led by Pompey and his optimates (conservative supporters), the Senate fled Rome, first to Brundisium in southern Italy and then across the Adriatic Sea to Rome’s Greek provinces. On October 2, Vercingetorix’s Gauls launched a massive attack from inside the Roman fortifications while a relief army hit the Romans from outside. Caesar’s fate – and that of the Roman Republic – hung in the balance as the Battle of Pharsalus began in earnest. Caesar then ordered the construction of a second line of fortifications facing outward (contravallation), enclosing his army between it and the inner set of fortifications. Meanwhile, the Helvetii had begun pillaging the land of tribes aligned with Rome. He led a show of force into Germanic territory before returning across the Rhine and dismantling the bridge. 1776-1783 Marlborough's Wars 1701-1714 The Jacobite Rebellion 1745 at Dyrrhachium (in modern-day Albania). On the Alesia side of this rampart, two 15-foot-wide ditches were dug, with the one nearest the fortification filled with water from surrounding rivers. “In all of life,” Caesar wrote, “but especially in war, the greatest power belongs to fortune.”. Armed mobs rule the streets. Pompey gathered his family, loaded as much gold as he could, threw off his general’s cloak and fled. He was finally able to counterattack and managed to push back Vercingetorix’s men. He stationed himself at the hill’s summit with two other legions, his auxiliaries and his baggage train. The next day he presented his arms to Caesar, ending the siege in a Roman victory. Finally on August 2, Caesar has cut off the enemy from water, fuel, and food, and they surrender. Less than a third survived to make their return. Finally, however, on August 9 Pompey and his army seemed ready to fight – and with a glance Caesar realized what his enemy was planning. Book 5--- 54 B.C. Lyons resides in Rochester, N.Y., with his wife, Brenda, and a beagle named Gus. When the Helvetii saw their allies attack, they returned to the battle. The best account is provided by Caesar's War Commentaries in three books covering 49-48, supplemented by separate accounts of the Alexandrian War, African War and Spanish War written by his continuators. Interesting. became a Roman consul, the city’s highest elected official. They simply cast them aside and prepared to meet the Roman assault without them. Even without the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and no other was the author. That same year, Caesar launched an amphibious campaign that took his forces to Britain. The Aedui, a tribe Caesar had saved from Germanic deprecation, had turned against him, joining the revolt and capturing his supplies and Roman base at Soissons. Caesar then went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus. Surviving that near defeat, Caesar marched inland and at Pharsalus again met Pompey and his army. Instead, we have a slew of medieval manuscripts, copied and edited by scribes over the centuries, and now stored in archives across the world. As Caesar had foreseen, when the lines collided Pompey loosed his 7,000 cavalrymen at the end of the Roman line. Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. Caesar’s army was almost out of supplies and had no clear line of retreat, while Pompey’s soldiers held the high ground, were far more numerous and better supplied. [1.0]Vossius's supplement to the first book: I will now say nothing concerning the absurd opinion of those who assert that the following Commentaries on the Civil War were not written by Caesar himself.Even without the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and no other was the author. triumph celebration – and then executed by strangulation. The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Caesar had absolute authority within these two Gallic provinces, and the Senate entrusted him with four legions to enforce his authority. The battle turned into a desperate fight for survival that continued into the twilight hours. Caesar’s next campaign, however, was against his fellow Romans. Most of 53 B.C. Caesar knew that the imminent battle was his last chance, warning his men that if they lost at Pharsalus they would be at Pompey’s mercy and probably slaughtered. Caesar’s cavalry and the six cohorts that made up his hidden fourth line then rushed forward to outflank Pompey’s left and worked their way behind his lines to attack from the rear. About midday, the Helvetii force, said to be tens of thousands of experienced warriors, appeared and stood facing the smaller and far less combat-experienced Roman force. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. In the morning, Vercingetorix sent a diversionary attack against the wall to the south and then struck the Roman weak spot with men he had hidden there and remnants of the relief force. Vercingetorix was taken to Rome, where he was held for six years before being put on display during Caesar’s 46 B.C. To help their plans, they made alliances with the Sequani, the Aedui (Roman clients) and two other Gallic tribes. Similar Posts: Book 3--- 48-47 B.C. He routed those remaining on his side of the Arar, killing many of them and driving the rest into the woods. One historian wrote: “Caesar, next to Alexander, was the outstanding director of siege operations of the ancient world.” Caesar proved that claim at the siege of Alesia. Sulla’s victims included Caesar’s uncle, the general and seven-time consul Gaius Marius. Chuck Lyons is a retired newspaper editor and a freelance writer who has written extensively on historical subjects. Caesar then hurried to Cisalpine Gaul, where he took command of three legions and enrolled two new ones, the XI and XII. The late Virginia Brown went through the herculean task of reviewing, dating, and documenting all known manuscripts of the Civil War. Learn how your comment data is processed. Gaius Julius Caesar: Civil War Gaius Julius Caesar (13 July 100 - 15 March 44 BCE), Roman statesman, general, author, famous for the conquest of Gaul (modern France and Belgium) and his subsequent coup d'état. Total War: ROME II – Caesar Edition is a limited physical edition release of Total War: ROME II celebrating the eponymous military commander that includes two epic campaigns packs, all the latest updates, and a free ebook from Osprey Publishing. Below you can see how Brown’s stemma varied from 2 previous attempts at tracing the transmission of Caesar’s Civil War.2 These stemmas simplify a tedious and laborious effort, but they all have the goal of getting to a single source. A military leader of legendary genius, Caesar was also a great writer, recording the events of his life with incomparable immediacy and power. He also fomented an outbreak of tribes along the Mediterranean, forcing Caesar to turn his attention to the south. In the Gallic camp, Caesar found records indicating that more than 300,000 Helvetii men, women and children had begun the trek west. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a … View 2_162939_Caesar_the_Civil_War_8517963156477394 (1).pdf from ENG 432 at Harvard University. Finally, Caesar’s legions were able to collapse the Helvetii defense, with some of the tribesmen escaping to the north and others making a last stand at the Helvetii baggage train, which was soon overwhelmed. Through a game of medieval telephone, there are a number of things that can change in copied text. Pompey’s 50,000-man army greatly outnumbered Caesar’s 20,000 soldiers; yet Caesar’s troops were seasoned veterans of the years-long,  hard-fought campaigns that had conquered Gaul (modern-day France) and greatly expanded Roman-ruled territory. For the past several days, Pompey had brought his more numerous troops to the field, and Caesar had formed his smaller army against them. The Romans rightly feared that the Helvetii would pillage other tribes as they migrated, and that once settled in southwest Gaul they would pose a threat to Roman territory. Book 2--- 57 B.C. The fighting began when another Gallic tribe, the Carnutes, slaughtered a group of Romans who had settled in what they considered their territory. The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). Knowing the city was immune to direct attack and again relying on his engineers, Caesar began construction of an encircling set of fortifications (circumvallation) around Alesia. Caesar had served the Republic for eight years in the Gallic Wars, fully conquering the region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to modern-day France).After the Roman Senate demanded Caesar to disband his army and return home as a civilian, he refused, crossing the Rubicon with his army and plunging Rome into Caesar's Civil War in 49 BC. in the making, depending on how you look at it. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Years later, Cicero, himself a famous orator, asked: “Do you know any man who, even if he has concentrated on the art of oratory to the exclusion of all else, can speak better than Caesar?”. George Armstrong Custer, Union cavalry leader who met his fate at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Although the proconsular term of office normally was one year, Caesar was able to secure his post in Gaul for an unprecedented five years, a term later increased to 10 years. “There was such a passion among the Gauls for liberty,” Caesar wrote, “that [nothing] could hold them back from throwing themselves with all their heart and soul into the fight for freedom.”. Meanwhile the cohesion of the triumvirate had been placed under strain. From 82 to 80 B.C., Lucius Cornelius Sulla made himself dictator of Rome and purged the city of his political enemies. Below you can see how Brown’s stemma varied from 2 previous attempts at tracing the transmission of Caesar’s Civil War.2 These stemmas simplify a tedious and laborious effort, but they all have the goal of getting to a single source. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was assassinated on the order of Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII. Moreover, the Germanic tribes likely would move into the abandoned Helvetii homeland, posing another threat to Roman interests. Pompey’s two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, and their supporters tried to continue the civil war, but the effort was futile. Caesar’s father, also named Gaius Julius Caesar, had served Rome as the city’s praetor (military or civilian commander) and as proconsul (governor) to Asia, while his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential Roman family. Caesar would prove the value of a dog's role in war several times over the course of his service in World War II. Anglo-Zulu War 1879 The Crimean War 1853-1856 The Plains Wars 1850s-1890s French Indian War 1754-1763 The Mahdist Revolt 1884 American Civil War 1861-1865 American War of Ind. Julius Caesar ruled Rome as unquestioned dictator until his assassination March 15, 44 B.C. In this effort, she sought to determine the source of more than 200 copies.1. He then built a bridge over the river and pursued the main Helvetii force for two weeks until a lack of supplies caused him to end the chase. Book 1--- 50 B.C. Alexandrian War; African War; Spanish War His work has appeared in numerous national and international periodicals. Vercingetorix moved a large part of his force by night to a weak spot in the northwest portion of the Roman fortifications that Caesar had tried to conceal; the area featured natural obstructions where a continuous wall could not be built. CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. When the 20,000 seasoned veterans of Caesar’s infantry line charged, Pompey’s 50,000 infantrymen held their positions awaiting the collision. Book 6--- 53 B.C. Then he ordered his legionaries to charge. Caesar spent the next few years “mopping up” remnants of the Pompeian faction and then returned to Rome and was reaffirmed as Rome’s dictator. Curio's disaster in Africa. The second wall, designed to protect the Roman besiegers from attacks from outside the city, was the same as the first in design but included four cavalry camps. Following his year as consul, Caesar engineered his appointment as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul (the region between the Alps, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea) and Transalpine Gaul (present-day Switzerland and Alpine France). covered by Books 1–8 of The Landmark Julius Caesar, the civil war of 49 and 48 by Books 9–11, wars in Egypt, Anatolia and other parts of the Roman empire in 47 by Book 12 (Alexandrian War), the second round of the civil wars in 46 by Book 13 (African War), and the last round of the civil wars in 45 by Book 14 (Spanish War). For most of the next decade, Caesar worked to pacify the unruly Gallic tribes and make Gaul a Roman province. In what would become his trademark, Caesar spared the Helvetii survivors and ordered them to return to their original homeland. The X’s men, rather than hurl their pila at the cavalry attack and then chop at the horses’ legs with their gladii (the traditional Roman defense against a cavalry attack), stabbed at the faces and eyes of the horsemen with their pila as Caesar had drilled them to do. When he reached the town of Geneva, near the planned route of the Helvetii, he began destruction of a bridge over the Rhone River in territory belonging to a Roman client tribe, the Allobroges. The city’s garrison was taken prisoner, as were the survivors of the relief army. This forced the Romans to divide their already outnumbered force to fight the Helvetii to their front and the enemy reserves to their side. Seven cohorts of Pompey-allied Thracians and other auxiliaries defended the camp as best they could but were unable to fend off Caesar’s legionaries. Defeat of Varro. Civil War Politics in Rome became increasingly hostile while Caesar was in Gaul. From that single source, Damon traced 1,000 disagreements across hundreds of medieval manuscripts of the Civil War and reconstructed a single version of the text.4 As a result, we now have a new Latin version of the Caesar’s work where the number of spots of lost or uncertain text is down to a few dozen.5 And with that, Damon has produced a fresh English translation, the first based on this new Latin version. He warned the Helvetii that any attempt to cross the river would be opposed. Again the Gauls were beaten back. The outcome of the bitter civil war that began with Caesar’s January 49 B.C. Caesar personally rode along the perimeter inspiring his legionaries as the two-sided battle raged. Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards, first to represent Great Britain in Olympic ski jumping. Richard Wayne Penniman [Little Richard], singer, musician; important influence on rock 'n' roll. During one deployment, heavy rains rendered the … Cynthia Damon has produced a fresh English edition of Caesar’s Civil War that was decades (or centuries!) Morgan J. Freeman, film director; his Hurricane Streets (1997) was the first narrative film to win three awards at the Sundance Film Festival; produced MTV reality shows (16 and Pregnant, Teen Mom). The differences in manuscripts can include. Caesar later served as questor (a treasury and legal official) in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain), where he led military expeditions against the native tribes and in 59 B.C. This is by no means a new process and multiple historians made their own attempts at Caesar’s Civil War before Virginia Brown. They surrendered and begged for mercy. The First Triumvirate - overseers of the last days of the Roman Republic - has disintegrated. Like most ancient texts, we do not have a pristine copy of Caesar's Civil War handed down to us from antiquity. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. > From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) Using Coins as Sources ... allowing students to quickly identify material relevant to Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate, the relationship between… < Read less Read more > Contents. The Civil Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [145k] Book 2 [83k] Book 3 [187k] Download: A 301k text-only version is available for download. The battle of Pharsalus was the decisive engagement that cemented Caesars legacy and finalized the procedure of Rome’s transition from a Republic to an Empire. Book 3--- 56 B.C. Later and more reliable estimates judge that Caesar lost about 1,200 soldiers and 30 centurions, while Pompey’s losses totaled about 6,000. The latter were freed to secure their tribes’ alliance with Rome. However, a larger and more serious uprising erupted in 52 B.C. The tactical advantages seemed greatly in Pompey’s favor. James Cleveland, considered the "King of Gospel.". According to figures claimed at the time, when the day was over 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed and another 20,000 were captured, while Caesar lost only 200 men. Julius Caesar - Julius Caesar - Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bce: During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. For example, if two separate manuscripts use the same abbreviations or misspellings, then one was likely used to produce the other. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) Book 8--- 51-50 B.C. The Hunt for Julius Caesar’s Assassins Marked the Last Days of the Roman Republic A new page-turning history details the events that led to the deaths of many of the conspirators This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. Inside Alesia, Vercingetorix gave his men a day’s rest before again throwing their might against the Roman wall with scaling ladders and grappling hooks. But have you red it and has there been any improvements/interesting things you noticed compared to prior translations? Intervention by the family of Caesar’s mother and Rome’s Vestal Virgins lifted the threat against Caesar; but it was not until he heard of Sulla’s death in 78 B.C. When he reached the river, three-fourths of the Helvetii force had already crossed. Due to his many wounded and the need to bury his dead, Caesar had to wait three days before he could pursue the fleeing Helvetii, but he finally caught them. Book II Siege and surrender of Massilia. At the time, Roman legions were noted for their tactical flexibility, disciplined fighting, ability to adapt to changing circumstances and superb organization; but “what ultimately made the Romans unbeatable,” one historian wrote, was “the Roman genius for fighting as a unit.” To this proven mix, Caesar added his charisma, daring and ability to inspire. He pursued Pompey and was almost conquered in July 48 B.C. Enough of the Gallic horsemen escaped, however, to ride for help. The Pompeian cavalry quickly overwhelmed the outnumbered Caesarian horse but then ran into Caesar’s favorite legion, the X, which Caesar had purposely stationed at the end of the line to meet the enemy cavalry. Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Roman Senate. The charging cavalry, meeting this unexpected and terrifying menace, pulled up short and then panicked. Then in 57 B.C., he marched with eight legions, archers and cavalry against the Belgae (who occupied an area roughly comprising modern-day Belgium) after they attacked a tribe allied with Rome. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. Originally published in the July 2013 issue of Armchair General. In 55 B.C., Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed that by building a bridge across the Rhine. Instead, Caesar marched from Gaul with the XIII Legion. He met them at the River Sabis (today’s Sambre), where he almost lost the battle that raged along its shore. Alea iacta est... 49 B.C. A Fresh Translation of Caesar’s Civil War, 8 Books for the Military History Undergrad, Studies on the Text of Caesar's Bellum civile, Gettysburg After Action Report – September 10, 2017, The Hannibal History Channel Doesn’t Want You to Know, Bodies Piling up at the Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC), Book Review: Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life, Misspellings, including inversions of letters, missing letters, repetition, Errors from abbreviations, which were outmoded or simply different, Method of dividing books, such as using headers, numbers, or a giant letter, Diving the text, such as 14 books instead of 3, “Improvements,” corrections by multiple hands on the same manuscript, Virginia Brown, “Caesar, Gaius Julius” in. II.1- 2 … Caesar, who throughout his military career relied heavily on his engineers, then began fortifying his position behind the river with a 16-foot-high rampart and a parallel trench lined with ballistae (large missile weapons). crossing of the Rubicon River with his XIII Legion in defiance of the Pompey-led Senate’s order would be decided by this day’s battle. Before Caesar had even left Rome to take up his duties in Gaul, he received word that the Helvetii tribe had begun migrating west toward the Atlantic coast, burning their villages behind them. Turning to aid the Roman-allied tribes, Caesar met the Helvetii as they were crossing the River Arar (modern-day Saône River, in eastern France). Caught on the wrong side of the mountains from Vercingetorix when winter hit, Caesar crossed the “impassable” Massif Central with a small force of infantry and cavalry to link up with two of his legions quartered near the southern edge of Arvenni territory. Book 2--- 49 B.C. Adopted by Caesar, Augustus (c.62 BC – 14 AD / Reigned 31 BC – 14 AD) had to fight for his throne. In January 49 B.C., he led his legion across the shallow Rubicon River and entered Italy – a virtual declaration of war against the Roman Republic. For several days, Julius Caesar had watched the army of his fellow Roman but bitter enemy Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) forming near Pharsalus in the central region of Roman-ruled Greece. Civil Wars. Yet he was aware of the role that luck played in his victories. In his Commentaries, he remarked, “No single traveler had ever crossed [these mountains] in winter.”. Caesar moved quickly into Gaul, creating auxiliary units as he went. Caesar’s use of projectile weapons (such as ballistae) along with archers and peltasts enabled him to turn the battle in his favor. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. Rome is in turmoil. Then, rather than use the high ground for a defensive stand, he moved forward against the Helvetii. Caesar, Julius; Peskett ... Rome -- History Civil War, 49-45 B.C Publisher London Heinemann Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Contributor Robarts - University of Toronto Language English. Copyright © 2020 Scott Manning. Caesar’s civil war would continue even after Pharsalus but that was the turning point.

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