The word "Big" in Big Data doesn't even come close to capturing what is happening today in our industry and what is yet to come. •    Do your data contain confidential and/or proprietary information (e.g., personally identifiable information, patentable information)? You can actually reap big benefits from focused efforts. Emergent Behavior of Growing Knowledge About Molecular Interactions. Data Management managers manage these changes, b… a.    It is essential to develop tools that manage confidential data and provide the necessary security. She holds interview data on paper questionnaire forms, as well as in audio recordings. 2011. •    Volume of data too large for university networks (e.g., Participant #1-03-100511 had to mail a hard drive) Most importantly, policies must be developed that support researchers in this use of these technologies. •    Parts of personal archives lost (e.g., computer crash, organizational mistakes) Business decisions are data-driven, and if the quality of data is questionable, it hampers the company’s decisions. Perspectives regarding data sharing beyond the research project are much more complex. Depending on the size of the project and the funding available, data may be double or triple entered by a series of undergraduate and graduate research assistants, or they may be outsourced to data entry professionals for the well funded projects. As with the creation of metadata, the economics of the scholarly reward system are likely to influence researcher perspectives on additional training (i.e., such training seems extraneous, as it does not directly contribute to publication production). •    ArcGIS Consequently, they routinely resorted to a constellation of personal computers, external hard drives, and commercial spaces, further compounding technical issues in data management. Data management is the upkeep of records, information, and data. Although digital data collection offers certain efficiencies in moving from the observation to the analysis phase, the associated data management tasks are not easily delegated. Changing the Equation on Scientific Data Visualization. . b.    Young scholars often have not considered the long-term value of their data or the importance of a systematic approach to data management. These early particle physics experiments are unique, as modern colliders operate at higher energy levels and cannot replicate the particle interactions. Aggregated research data could make such efficiencies clear. •    Community-based nongovernmental organizations and civil society in Ethiopia 2. Metaknowledge. Data not maintained at the institution. •    How are the data named/numbered, etc.? •    What concerns do you have about archiving or curating your data? Where you’re not simply looking at the results you also have access to the instruments that you used to collect and the questions that were related to those, as in the research questions, but also the instrument questions. •    Lack of systems to adequately segregate and maintain control over sensitive data However, much of the data have been irrevocably lost to corrupt storage media, lost computer code, and deactivated personal accounts. •    Did your graduate program include training in curating or managing data? For a more extensive discussion and critique of this issue, see Henrich et al. In fact, they conclude that WEIRD (Western Educated Industrialized Rich and Democratic) subjects are among the least representative populations for characterizing the fundamentals of human psychology. Confidential and nonconfidential data are often intermingled in the data sets of social scientists, causing them to be inherently conservative about data sharing. Investing in big data is definitely lucrative, but unplanned management can result in a huge mess. Participant #2-12-111011 is an assistant professor of environmental science who studies environmental politics and protests in Kyrgyzstan. Furthermore, the creation of such spaces could facilitate researcher integration with data preservation programs. D-lib Magazine 13(3/4): 1–13. •    Development of a prototype for digital curation microservices (tools/applications driven by services, e.g., ingest of object/authenticating object, version control) Like it or not, data consistency and accuracy drives the success of a data governance initiative. This may be true. Participants frequently reported exceeding their data quotas within university networks, and they sought tools that allow them to collaborate across institutions and manage data in a networked environment. It’s true that the ability to leverage data isn’t everybody’s forte and transforming it into information that is consistent, correct and comprehensive is often found to be missing. •    Educational or other training programs should focus on early intervention in the researcher career path for the greatest long-term benefit. And then have a place for the output of the analytics to go back into that collection space so that they’re connected in some way [with] your analysis and the data you’ve collected, which makes it easier to engage in the process of writing or making sense of this. Science 221(4611): 609–613. The workflow for processing the bone images for analysis is complex and requires multiple specialized software programs for three-dimensional visualization and measurement. The researchers are not naïve; they understand that poor data management can be costly to their research and that access to greater technical expertise, through either a consultant or additional training, would be useful for their work. The need to share files among researchers at multiple universities has also created problems. •    There is unlikely to be a single out-of-the-box solution that can be applied to the problem of data curation. •    Some data considered proprietary by collection holders (museum collections) Platforms that could provide both a workspace and a preservation space would add significant value for scholars. By 1977 print media had already begun to show signs that its relevance was declining in relation to electronic media (Pool 1983). So managing this kind of restricted access is difficult, especially for social scientists when they don’t have multimillion dollar grants. •    What kind of data sources did you use in this project? The researcher hopes to scan the print versions of her questionnaire forms and destroy the originals, which are presently stored in boxes in her office. •    What are your expectations for this re-use (e.g., citation, copies of papers, reciprocity)? If not, does another staff member fulfill this role? Because she works in three languages (Kyrgyz, Russian, and English), the researcher has had difficulties hiring and training transcriptionists, and the transcription of her interviews has taken several years to complete. Data management was typically discussed only in research methods courses and often only at a cursory level of detail in relation to methodological approaches and problems. Our goals were to identify barriers to data curation within the university environment, as well as to Perspectives regarding research data tend to be pragmatic. This project is currently in progress, and the team envisions a wide range of potential audiences for the curated materials, including other researchers, the general public, and primary and secondary students. Researcher concerns related to protecting data privacy range from ensuring the physical safety of research participants (Participant #2-13-111411) to helping prevent the theft of objects from museums or other research locations (Participant #4-18-121911). As the lines around research materials continue to blur, so do disciplinary boundaries, thus necessitating careful discussion of data access and security. •    Matlab Typically, metadata and documentation are of interest to researchers only if it helps them complete their work and produce publications. Advancing Global Health Research Through Digital Technology and Sharing Data. •    None of the researchers interviewed for this study have received formal training in data management practices, nor do they express satisfaction with their level of expertise. Participant #1-03-100511 is a biological anthropologist who studies primate evolution and primate bone morphology using image data (high-resolution computed tomography). It is very important to point out that Data Management methodologies focus on what should be done and not on how. 2007. •    Archeology in the Gordian region, Turkey (and collaboration with civil rights nongovernmental organization), Collaboration In this case, data rights can become a source of conflict, as the researcher’s institution asserts ownership over data produced by university-owned scanners. Our interviews with researchers suggest that data specialists should have at least some expertise—preferably considerable knowledge—in the discipline with which they are working. •    ProfilesPlus (specialized software for policy analysis) •    What formats are these materials in? Before proceeding with the implementation, the onus lies with the organization to ensure that an effective data governance framework is put in place to keep the complete life-cycle in check. The researcher is concerned about her skills in data management. •    Atlas.ti For example, when the project needed chimpanzee bones to use for comparison with human bones, the researchers could not obtain samples locally. What formats do you work with? •    Imaging of primate bone morphology and walking behavior in juvenile humans •    There is a great need for more effective collaboration tools, as well as online spaces that support the volume of data generated and provide appropriate privacy and access controls. We conducted ethnographic interviews with faculty, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and other researchers in a variety of social sciences disciplines. One of the biggest problems we often see, is that firms often don’t realise they have a problem with their data. •    Policy (e.g., varying levels of access complicate workflows for research teams that include undergraduate and graduate students) In the best-case scenario, a data specialist would be fully integrated into a research team and would also conduct research. These researchers are referring to the use of stem cell lines in research and the inherent ambiguity of navigating privacy and consent when the research materials are both human-made and derived from human individuals. •    SharePoint •    Secondary analysis of literature •    Inadequate online collaboration space Are you happy to trade … Some study participants wondered who might be interested in their data while also expressing a desire to associate their data with publications or to have it available for use in the classroom (e.g., Participant #2-12-111011, Assistant Professor, Environmental Science). In some cases, they are using multiple locations because the capacity of any one location is insufficient to support the volume of data while enabling access from multiple locations (e.g., terabyte scale data of Participant #1-03-100511). Characteristics of research sites included in this study. •    What problems have you encountered while working with the data? Managing large files presents significant challenges for researchers in that university infrastructures typically do not provide adequate storage space or sufficient bandwidth for data access (e.g., Participant #4-25-120511 could not store videos from interviews with study participants on university servers). Brooklyn, NY: Berghahn Books. •    Archaeological tourism in Highland Bolivia, 2002–2004 In other cases, the dispersal of data reflects idiosyncratic work habits with insufficient time for organizational tasks. Participant #5-09-103111 was the only scholar interviewed during this study who was working in a position that was formally designated as a digital curator (in this case, a “data scientist”). Even individuals who are early in their research career may have amassed significant bodies of data (e.g., Participant #3-14-113011, a postdoctoral fellow, already had thousands of image files). Cokol, Murat, Ivan Iossifov, Chani Weinreb, and Andrey Rzhetsky. Thus, an additional burden of labor has shifted to the scholars themselves, and they are grappling with ways to balance the changes in research labor with increasing expectations for teaching performance. Failed investigations rarely receive the attention of a publication, but they do generate data that may indicate invalid approaches or the lack of merit in a particular line of inquiry. •    Cognitive development in children, using eye tracking equipment •    Antiterror laws in Turkey, prosecution of the Kurdish minority •    Video: mp4, mov The International Journal of Digital Curation 6(2): 4–37. To see to big data acceptance even more, the implementation and use of the new big data solution need to be monitored and controlled. Evans and Foster (2011) argue that a meta-analysis of research findings (i.e., publications) could identify overstudied fields where continued research has diminishing returns, thus helping individuals make better decisions about research investment. Our findings and recommendations are as follows: 1.    An approach that emphasizes early engagement with researchers and dialog around finding/building the appropriate tools to manage data for a particular project/researcher is likely to be the most productive. Although digital technologies have brought new opportunities for researchers to create data sets that enable increasingly sophisticated analyses, haphazard data management and preservation strategies endanger the benefits that this advancement might bring. This participant went on to describe tools that could remediate some of these difficulties, suggesting networked databases that include tools for ingesting data according to schema designed for the project’s research questions. Ignoring the data quality. This becomes possible only when a governing authority is formed comprising the right kind of skilled individuals who can oversee proper data administration. It may not be until the active research phase that data collection is systematic, although changes in protocol may occur even during this phase. •    Many researchers expressed concerns surrounding the ethical re-use of research data. The goals of the study were to identify barriers to data curation, to recognize unmet researcher needs within the university environment, and to gain a holistic understanding of the workflows involved in the creation, management, and preservation of research data. Its main stages involve the definition of data quality thresholds and rules, data quality assessment, data quality issues resolution, data … Data stored on personal media devices are especially vulnerable to this type of loss, as few scholars have the skills necessary to maintain data over time and across hardware and software platforms. Governments and universities all around Australia and the world are now encouraging researchers to better manage their data so others can use it. •    No contact with university data services Another one of the biggest data center management hurdles today is that data center managers are being called to run much larger, more complex workloads that are often very different from one … Among the participants in this study, the scale of research data ranged from under 1 GB to multiple terabytes. Without sufficient attention to the context of data aggregated from an array of fields, we run the risk of promoting facile interpretations of the relationship between human biology and behavior, and of human nature itself. Researchers who are in temporary positions may not be willing to commit to a university data management system when they may leave in a year or two, and they may fear that they will be unable to retrieve their data at that time. Although some researchers would welcome greater ease in sharing their data, particularly in collaborative projects, many are reluctant to enter into any arrangement in which they would relinquish control over access to the data. . There are several thousand TIFF images for a single bone, and images are repositioned, sampled, and extracted to a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format so that measurements can be made. Many a time, organizations ask the IT team to handle and manage the data governance initiatives. •    Who is responsible for them? 2.    Researchers must have access to adequate networked storage. 2011. Furthermore, the terms of service may not be sufficient to meet the data protection and confidentiality standards that researchers and their institutional review boards (IRBs) require. In some cases, a project does not work out as planned, and researchers recycle it into a new research idea or take it in a new direction entirely. As one researcher described: The participant went on to describe a colleague’s more generously funded project that includes database programmers who manage large data sets of computed tomography (CT) scans. •    E-mail It is essential to address these issues in order to develop policies and infrastructure that truly support scholars in this new era. •    Do you have a plan/strategy for archiving these materials? Sheer size can be a problem, but clearly the biggest problem is the problem of protection of privacy. Data for this project are initially collected in an imaging lab and then processed locally in the researcher’s anthropology lab. The protective attitude toward research data might also lead (or even require) researchers to neglect metadata and secondary materials (e.g., codebooks, explanatory materials, finding aids, ontologies) that are necessary to ensure the long-term usefulness of primary data. After another good introduction to Mobile Computing it •    Would you publish your original data if you believed there was a suitable venue? While these figures prove the fact right that big data is huge and it can do wonders for a business, its volatility can’t be ignored, and the road from adoption to action is actually rocky. Challenge #2: Confusing variety of big data … •    How do you work with/analyze/manipulate/transform the data? A practical model for fostering both collaboration and interoperability may be a network of local data specialists who are aligned with disciplines and/or affiliated with a regional or national scholarly organization. Regardless of the name, the concepts in question and the issues … She is also interested in the potential for making public her qualitative interview results and notes, but has concerns about confidentiality and privacy. Rzhetsky, Andrey, Ivan Iossifov, Ji Meng Loh, and Kevin P. White. Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Harris, Mark. b.    Extensive outreach to scholars is necessary to build the relationships that will facilitate data preservation. Overall, the researchers interviewed for this study exhibited an extremely wide range of data collection practices and habits, and they readily adapted research workflows to fit their current interests and needs. Data management and data analysis - 524 rev. Applying additional security measures, such as encrypting files locally prior to sharing them via a cloud service, is beyond the technical skills of many researchers, and it diminishes the ease of use that leads researchers to adopt these tools as a file-sharing solution. It is a common practice followed by the ETL developers to look at the present dataset and develop the ETL to clean and process the dataset. Unfortunately, that is not enough. Available at This scholar’s current project is a National Science Foundation (NSF)–funded, multi-institutional study of bone development and its relationship to the walking behavior of juvenile humans. Approximately half of respondents reported … Nevertheless, the variety of audiences who might utilize the data (e.g., other scholars, policymakers, the public at large), as well as a lack of metadata standards for preserving information about a project, hindered researchers’ efforts to effectively share and disseminate their data. None of the scholars interviewed during this study expressed satisfaction with their level of expertise in data management, and few had access to individuals who could provide knowledgeable guidance. These specialists are likely to need significant technical training in addition to their subject knowledge. It can also commonly be called "data resource management" (or DRM). This work has often been the domain of IT or technical professionals, yet data has the potential to serve as a … Although some of these issues stem from a lack of training or knowledge about best practices for data management, the issues cannot be separated from access to adequate infrastructure. “Without big data, you are blind and deaf in the middle of a freeway.” – Geoffrey Moore, management … I think the field is trying to now establish appropriate levels of protection for particular kinds of data and is trying to balance this problem of privacy with public access, and it is a challenge and it’s going to require some new modes of doing things. A few of the participants had consulted with experts in the field (e.g., Participant #5-09-103111 had consulted the Smithsonian Institution for guidance regarding the preservation of 16-bit color raw files) or had used self-help books and syllabi found online (Participants #1-04-100511 and #5-09-103111). Few researchers see the library as a partner, and most of the researchers in this study seemed to regard the library as a dispensary of goods (i.e., books, articles) rather than a locus for badly needed, real-time professional support. 2011. •    Did you create new data sources as part of this research (e.g., experimental results, data sets, coding files, indexes)? He emphasized the importance of having individuals who work closely with the project manage some of the technical aspects. Avoiding such a situation is possible when you are aware of the common mistakes in advance. As Mathews and colleagues note, “Simple notions of access are substantially complicated by shifting boundaries between what is considered information versus material, person versus artifact, and private property versus the public domain” (2011, 725). New York: Free Press. Sometimes it goes by "data administration." •    How did you organize the data? The volume, velocity, and variety of data that is being generated has overwhelmed the capabilities of infrastructure and analytics we have today. •    Have you had training in data curation? However, Participant #5-11-103111 characterized the library as an ideal location to create spaces for working with restricted data in compliance with governmental and other guidelines. •    What tools do you use? Science 331(6018): 721–725. The researchers wrote a custom PERL script to extract the metadata required for analysis as a text file, which is then imported into an Excel spreadsheet for tracking purposes. Pixilation on lower resolution images renders them unusable, making very large files (up to 60–65 GB per section) necessary. •    How many items are contained in the data set? Bone collections often have tight restrictions on their use and reuse. The initial bone imaging data include XML files with the metadata describing the scanner settings. Ensuring the Data-rich Future of the Social Sciences. Tracking and metadata files have been shared via Dropbox, which initially created conflicting copies of documents and required the design of new workflows to avoid duplication. •    Learning among children within an online environment At some point in time, every data should be recycled. •    What kinds of primary sources did you use? Background: •    Ask the participant to describe a research project she/he is currently working on (or recently completed). Data quality management is a setup process, which is aimed at achieving and maintaining high data quality. The data preservation step must be fully integrated into a scholar’s research workflow.

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