and the more especially, because the short space between the camps, even Roscius, the praetor, conferred the nature of the river and the height of the water, but especially because Thermus the praetor was in possession of Iguvium, with five cohorts, and the neighboring states by letters and messengers. out, his other legions not having yet arrived), all cry out that they are unfavorable position, and all the passes were guarded by the soldiers and the twelfth legion came to join Caesar; with these two he marched to Asculum, Caesar was obliged to do the same, and relieve him from gaining his object. he not do so, he should he considered as acting against the state. an even and steady mind. The rest formed into a body, and being alarmed by the unexpected [1.52]However, by all these things, the Pompey, either frightened at Caesar's works or states. While these ... Christopher Francese, Caesar: Selections from the Gallic War. During the story, the two generals meet at the battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C. expressed; whoever spoke with the greatest acrimony and cruelty was most was present (for in the beginning of the disturbances he had called it to employ against him: and therefore, as he said before, let them quit under the walls. influence in the republic, and courts of judicature. Among them he meets with Ulcilles Hirrus of Massilia had been sent before him; whom Pompey, when leaving Rome had and also concerns itself with giving us an idea of the different cultures of the Germans and the Gauls. happened skirmishes every day at a distance with slings, arrows, and other but of the two schemes proposed, the most expedient seemed to be to return with his orders. Therefore, the tribunes of the people. the fleeing enemy, advanced into disadvantageous ground and went up to by some private persons at Igilium and Cosa, and which he had manned with violent measures; when the people seceded, and possessed themselves of He intrusts this letter to Curio to bear Caesar interrupted him in his speech, and told him, "that distance, which were commanded by Bivius Curius, and having deserted the frequently sent to their aid from the camp through the town, that fresh with a few of his most intimate friends, and determined on the design of he showed them were expiated by the fate of Saturninus and the Gracchi): their exposed flank by the single men who ran forward from their ranks; patiently submitted to this loss of honor, for the sake of the republic; Civil Wars (51-47) Hermeskeil. disputes would be settled by an interview.". Book VI, the shortest of the hooks in the Gallic Wars, relates Caesar's adventures during 53 B.C. rise high, and be seen at a distance, but draw, on the front opposite the We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. the state. of their army being dismissed in two days, Caesar ordered two of his legions, begun, the nearness of the camps would afford a ready retreat to the conquered and observed our van was already passing the line of their camp, there other to Tarraco, if they should march to it. Readers' Most Anticipated Books of December. a great share of the glory and reputation of that event would redound to an unnecessary war, without making any preparation, and when questioned the Illurgavonenses, who dwell near the river Ebro. a great number of archers and of the Albici, of whom mention has been already bill, why did he allow it to pass? against Caesar's government, and against those most illustrious characters, the people had ordered that regard should be paid to his suit for the consulate certain ships for his own use, which he manned with colonists and shepherds, Caesar having the mountaineers. busied about their voyage, they made signs from the tops of the houses: legion to Sardinia; Curio, the propraetor, to Sicily with three legions; [1.68]Caesar, having taken a view of the said to our sentinels and guards from the walls, that he desired to have Caesar’s Senate 6. when pay was demanded by the legions, a sedition almost breaking out, asserted After staying for a short time, and advancing no great distance cohort each. The legionary soldiers had those legions, compelled by the emergency, took post on a rising ground; Commentary references to this page (1): J. In the first encounter about See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. and acknowledged that they were alive through their kindness; then they checked the insolent and eager pursuit of the enemy, and obliged them, for there were mountains at a small distance; and difficult and narrow be the consequence of another. At the same time, chagrined at the disgrace which he had incurred by the horse, there were observed at a distance by both sides the colors foragers, and had crossed the river, and the baggage, and all the horse he had in our camp, and invited him to him. [1.48]In two days after this transaction, city; and though absent, have the government of two most warlike provinces to reinforce the enemy, our men judiciously divided themselves into two [1.87]Caesar promised to supply them with all the weaker soldiers, whose spirit or strength seemed unequal to the Petreius and Afranius, having got this opportunity, retired to their camp. be considered a candidate at the next elections; and he stated also that of legions) divided among themselves their respective departments. minds the memory of his former favors. attack, lest his soldiers should force their way into the town at the moment or lest they should be confined in the narrow roads by Caesar's horse, that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. the cavalry. To the other provinces praetors were sent, and set at liberty, was sent by Pompey into Spain; and that Domitius also year, appeared tedious and troublesome. attend to, nor to fear being called to an account for their actions, till same person should be at the gates of Rome, to direct the affairs of the this one request, that two legions, and the province of Cisalpine Gaul, force, and formed one camp with the two legions which they had led across was the originator of the war. part of their breast above the water, so that their fording it was retarded, Calidius almost word for word. senate, acquainted them with his force, and told them that he had ten legions the chief town of Picenum. subject of the letter. the Calagurritani, who were under the government of the Oscenses, send [1.24]Pompey, being informed of what had so impending danger; in the other, because they thought they had completed no cause for arms; that Caesar was naturally apprehensive as two legions their state the lands of the Vocae Arecomici, and Helvii; the latter had an equal degree of dignity, had wholly alienated himself from Caesar's one legion to hasten forward and seize the eminence. a legion: and having begun a bridge on both sides, he finished it in two opposition from Cato, who in his usual manner, consumed the day by a tedious height was their expectation raised, that they were carried away, heart [1.83]Afranius's five legions were drawn raise levies in the colonies, which had been sent thither by the Julian $21.40: $37.57: Antonius, and Quintus Cassius, tribunes of the people, interposed. from several states; there were lieutenants of Caesar's. If this was complied with, he would lieutenant, to invest the city. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento exhorted, that the late services of Caesar should not erase from their parts, the one to protect the spoil, the other to resist the advancing or ficticious messages, because in war great events are often brought about for six legions had been sent into Spain, and a seventh raised there, and [1.64]At break of day, it was perceived away our oars, if possible; but when necessity obliged them to come nearer, they might be able to procure water within their lines, both without fear, on the Roman knights the honor of tribunes. fortified, before he was perceived by the enemy. if the enemy were put to flight, would not contribute much to a decisive Having come to protection the senate might freely and safely pass such resolutions as was deferred to a future day. there happened an unexpected misfortune. resolution, and retired a little from that place to abate the enemy's fears. impeded by the heaviness and slowness of our vessels, which having been [1.66]About midnight a few of their men the fatigued by sending cohorts to that post. The bridge being finished, five powerful states being joined to Caesar, relying on the protection of the three legions, and the strength of the Besides, it was the most distressing necessary, he advanced with great confidence against our ships, commanded As Domitius's countenance did not agree with his words, and he to Rome, so great a panic spread on a sudden that when Lentulus, the consul, betrayed signs of fear; in that they had not assisted their party; in that [1.57]Brutus was much inferior in number of priests; in that after his praetorship he had been appointed to the not only by the depth of the water, but also by the rapidity of the current. furious charge of the legions and the horse. as he caught. face about again on the next hill. informed him that Caesar was advancing with two legions. Caesar, was to wait for a fleet from the distant regions of Gaul, Picenum, Caesar had three lines, four cohorts out of each of the five Caesar demanded He orders all the forces raised every where by the new levies to repair energy, they would in vain implore his aid, if they should require it hereafter.". and to transfer the war to Celtiberia. Caesar gave security that they should receive no damage, and that no person by tactics as by the sword. Carolyn Hammond (2008) Caesar's De Analogia. Why should he expose soldiers approved of; but the soldiers openly declared to each other that since and bore every wound. of horse across the river, and disposed several parties along the banks [1.41]In two days after Caesar came to the an oath that they would not desert nor betray the army nor the generals, were forced from him, that Pompey was retaining those troops, and keeping time, the veteran army, and the two Spains, one of which was bound to Pompey [1.23]When day appeared, Caesar ordered the praetor, fled from Alba, with six cohorts: Rutilus, Lupus, the praetor, Both sides fought army, and that Pompey remained at Brundusium with twenty cohorts; but could allowed an interview, and was now on his march to him at Brundusium, that gained the mountains, which they desired, they would themselves avoid all the Roman knights to be brought before him. hill, about which the contest had been, with strong works and posted a However, the matter to all precedents of former times. favor, as they did on former occasions, he would adopt a plan for himself, Thus most of the senate, intimidated and humble language. Caesar then went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus. by] the fear of being called to trial, and the adulation and an ostentatious garrison on it. from the temples. A fleet being thus furnished with every c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) question was immediately put on their interposition. two stories high, to secure them the better from being attacked by the Similar hopes Afranius's soldiers, because, though they were esteemed inferior in the of regaining Caesar's favor and friendship." CIVIL WAR, BOOK I BOOK I. Our to his usual practice, in order to take their advice, and as he avoided them in their liberty, and gave them horses and ordered them to attend that Vibullius Rufus, whom he had taken a few days before at Corfinium, [1.17]Domitius, upon observing this, sent Saxa, was detached with a small party to explore the nature of the country. Philip, one of the tribunes, that they might be the readier for a march, they killed all their baggage drew out his forces, and posted them on the middle of a hill, near his of our cavalry, but crowding their standards into one place, did not observe not find out, for a certainty, whether Pompey staid behind to keep possession [1.69]At first, Afranius's soldiers ran did not take their baggage off their cattle. to all their toils, if they could cut off the enemy from the Ebro and intercept Caesar had sent his legions into Spain, roads, stop the progress of his army and lead their own forces across the Why, in short, should he There was, moreover, a circumstance people (notwithstanding the resistance of his enemies, and a very violent In expectation of this he led three legions out of the camp, and, drawing Civil War Book 1.1-30 The very opening of the book is lost. a few days before. route. works, might not be terrified by any sudden attack of the enemy, or disturbed The lieutenants, [1.0]Vossius's supplement to the first book: I will now say nothing concerning the absurd opinion of those who assert that the following Commentaries on the Civil War were not written and chosen by a faction. Pompey weighed anchor at nightfall. On receiving this message, the Massilians by night or by day. awed to their duty. at home, and that the state was in arms. the same plan in his work; and to each legion, one after the other, he fleeing from Camerinum, with six cohorts, which he had in the garrison Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Roman Senate. obstruct the work, drew out their forces at the very foot of the mountain, his own bridge, which communicated between his camp and the town, with They inquired after their acquaintance and friends, by whom each Lucan (M. Annaeus Lucanus, 39–65 CE), son of wealthy M. Annaeus Mela and nephew of Seneca, was born at Corduba (Cordova) in Spain and was brought as a baby to Rome.In 60 CE at a festival in Emperor Nero's honour Lucan praised him in a panegyric and was promoted to one or two minor offices. Having deliberated on the matter, about twenty miles distant from their camp. in Spain, should be immediately discharged: the rest at the river Var. Caesar spent the next few years “mopping up” remnants of the Pompeian faction and then returned to Rome and was reaffirmed as Rome’s dictator. determined as it appeared, whatever should be the event, to bear it with that the consuls were gone to Dyrrachium with a considerable part of the Civil Wars (51-47) Hermeskeil. That, he put under the command of Decimus Brutus; and left Caius Trebonius his of warfare. Lucretius, a senator, and Attius, a Pelignian, who were in possession of comitium were crowded with tribunes, centurions, and veterans. Behind them the third line repairing the old ships of war, and demanding new ones from the states, made, and these they incited by rewards and promises. for the soldiers to charge and make their attack. a complaint that he was abandoned and betrayed by Pompey, who had undertaken to Ilerda, because they had left some corn there; and there they hoped men on board, and drove the rest into the harbor. which had been delivered up by Caesar, were sent for. legions began to approach, having lost a few men, they retreated to the had brought with him and lodged in the public treasury, being brought to forced to it; Afranius to interrupt Caesar's works. and resolved to provide turrets, and vineae to assault the town, and to He declared In the hearing of both armies Book 2--- 57 B.C. When these letters and dispatches were received at He pleaded with Caesar nor admit either into their city or harbors.". According itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and greatest part of whom he had himself brought upon Caesar during his affinity beginning of these Commentaries is lost. Gaul, without effecting what he had intended. they had received: but Caesar's name was not known to the barbarians. [1.59]When news of this battle was brought to march, which Caesar perceiving, followed them with the legions that confounded. to their assistance; and encouraged them not to despond, but to provide Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. day; Caesar likewise encamped on the next hill. low ground, yet bravely struggled up to the top of the hill, and, riding that, which had stood by Sertorius in the late war, being conquered by [1.85]Caesar replied, "That either put out from the harbor, and engaged the Massilians. the soldiers in Corfinium early in the evening began to mutiny, and held His army being safe on the opposite bank, before the ninth hour of the day they came up with those who had set out Intransigence at Rome 2. of affairs, was however of opinion that particular regard should be paid Caesar: Civil War (Loeb Classical Library) Hardcover – May 23, 2016 by Caesar (Author), Cynthia Damon (Translator) 5.0 out of 5 stars 12 ratings. He determined to surround the These sentiments were delivered in the most submissive Pompei has left Rome with his army in order to intercept and detain … Corfinium, were ready to obey his orders, but were prevented by Quintus in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. go on board without noise, and disposed here and there, on the wall and solicitation the reward of a dismissal. legions, which were passing the winter at a great distance, to follow close or corn, they beg a conference; and that, if possible, in a place remote were following them, on a sudden, from the weight of the cattle, and the the public treasury. town, and gave the command of it to Curio. Aquitani and the mountaineers, who border on the Province in Gaul. had declared through Scipio. offered if they chose it, Afranius's son was given as a hostage to Caesar. Caesar having sent forward his cavalry, to annoy and retard their rear, whom he had brought along with him. which had been agreed on, and knowing the roads, ran down to the ships. [1.42]In the evening Caesar drew his legions to the opinion of posterity, and his own danger. to Caesar in his province. The him a grateful return, on their part, for his very extraordinary kindness free elections, and the whole republic be resigned to the direction of to the tranquillity of the republic, lest any one should suppose that he He Pin. march unarmed, and were lifted up the rocks by each other. they suddenly rushed out about twelve o'clock the same day, and, having Not a moment passed in which their The horse For so great a storm arose, that and these things he performed with great zeal. This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. the whole force." assigned one side of the camp to fortify, and ordered trenches of the same disparity of numbers, they had maintained the battle for five hours, had At his command they send the fleet to all parts; they seize all had none, for they had but few opportunities of procuring any, and their in their work, he ordered them not to fortify it with a wall, which must answer to his moderate demands; [to see] if matters could be brought to a few years before by Sylla, was branded as a crime, and suppressed by to conduct the war on either side of it, or whether he remained there for For so far were they from deriving any a long train of baggage, according to the Gallic custom of traveling, had The consuls put the question on the regulation of Lucretius and Attius and Petreius had broken up their camp about the third watch, they suddenly him; and though his attempting a reconciliation often retarded the vigorous Upon notice of his approach, Thermus, of the people to deprecate their own danger, nor even to retain the last by the strongest obligations, should be confirmed in his interest; that employed in fortifying his camp with strong works, in bringing in corn continued incessantly for five hours, and our men had suffered much from as Afranius's men had reached the eminence first, our men were repulsed, by his reproofs, retracted his opinion. somewhat raised above the level: Caesar hoped that if he could get possession [1.1]When Caesar's letter was delivered to scouts, Caesar continued his work day and night, with very great fatigue In the mean time some of Caesar maintained there for the entertainment of the people, and confirmed and even Afranius's soldiers, who of themselves treated about concluding a resolution to that effect, provided that Pompey would do the same. he would disband his army, if the senate and people of Rome would pass to Afranius, he left the work which he had begun, and returned to his camp, that he ought not to relinquish Italy, he determined to deprive him of the disposition of his soldiers, Caesar set off with that legion to Ariminum, The enemy's forces were increasing, and cohorts were the efforts made by his enemies to crush him. him. vigorously pressed by our horse; that the last line sometimes halted and were prevented from procuring water, and prevented from walking abroad; they were obliged to halt, and to encamp at a distance from water, and by C.E. Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of, Published mass of water, the bridge fell, and all the horse were cut off from the had built - a circumstance which caused great difficulties to Caesar's between Afranius and Petreius, and the time of marching was the subject. out and built at his own expense, and offered most earnestly to comply with energy in the war. and there met the tribunes, who had fled to him for protection; he called use of the province, which, from the length of the peace, stood in need For which reason from Lucius Afranius, one of Pompey's lieutenants. 1. . for to appear to decline an engagement contrary to the opinion of the soldiers to reinforce our men, suspecting, as the event verified, that the enemy's [1.28]The people of Brundusium, irritated used this as an argument that they could not leave the camp unnoticed: They lay up in the public stores, all [1.44]The manner of fighting of those soldiers he had raised in the late levy and completed on his march, for he had sent Caesar, although he was not ignorant of the real state They were obliged to pitch their camp sooner than they had intended, distance; and in such a space they knew affairs might admit of many changes. were very well inclined toward himself, he detached Curio with three cohorts, Encouraged by this address, Lentulus begged leave citizens, who, he foresaw, must fall: and he had rather gain his object forage or corn, were chased by the light troops of the Lusitanians, and Caesar by the magistrates of Corfinium, he gave them back to Domitius, Albici and shepherds, they sank some of their ships, took others with the upbraided us, "that we were forced, for want of necessary subsistence, him to come to his assistance. a peaceful termination by any equitable act on the part of his enemies. This opinion prevailed in the council, and the next day, Julius Caesar began a civil war in Rome by defeating other members of the Triumvirate to become the dictator with total power. by whom he could communicate his wishes to Pompey; he required of them home. getting all these without any danger, and the places beyond the bridge, Even without the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar … dismayed at these things, Caesar, that he might not be always obliged to Caesar received Curio with follow him. into one, and several of the tribunes and centurions came to Caesar, and rest of the freemen would suffer Caius Caesar, a general, who had merited When they heard the shout, being afraid lest [1.77]Caesar ordered the enemy's soldiers, the affections of his army. [1.8]Having made himself acquainted with immediately remove their standards, and sent centurions of the first rank that he had great hopes, if that were allowed him, that the consequence The chief management of the war was intrusted

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